Table Of Contents
From the Executive Director
EESI’s hard work since our last issue of EESI Update has helped build support for clean and efficient energy technologies that benefit our health, economy, national security and environment. During this time, EESI has successfully fought to maintain funding for renewable energy/efficiency programs in the 2002 Farm Bill, helped protect funding (and rebuff cuts) for clean air and transit in the transportation bill, and promoted successful inclusion of several renewable energy and energy efficiency tax incentives and a Renewable Fuels Standard in the 2005 Energy Policy Act. EESI is proud to have held 22 Congressional briefings and events since January 1, including two well-received technology Expos on the Hill, which we organized with partners.
And now, with skyrocketing energy prices, increasingly sobering news from climate scientists and the aftermath of Katrina, we are seeing both an enormous need and opportunity calling for a redoubling of all our efforts. EESI has received significant media coverage from BNA’s Daily Environment Reporter, Greenwire, SNLinteractive, New Mexico Public Radio, Wind Energy Weekly, Renewable Energy Access, Huntsville Times, UPI and Congressional Quarterly. Such exposure keeps improving EESI’s reach in educating policymakers and the public on critical issues regarding our energy choices.
As EESI is ever dependent on the generosity of funders, we offer sincere thanks to our newest EESI Associates: Alternative Energy Builders, Inc., John Atkinson, The Coca-Cola Company, Elliott Laws, and Ruth Patrick; and the renewals of Allete, Bob Lawrence and Associates, Fran Buchholdzer, Mortimer Caplin, Polyisocyanurate Insulation Manufacturers Association, and the Solar Energy Industries Association. Please join us. Your support makes such a difference!
Agriculture and Energy
For the third year in a row, the Administration’s FY06 budget request called for significant cuts to Sec. 9006(Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Systems Grants/Loans program) and Sec. 6401 (Value-Add program) of the 2002 Farm Bill, essentially gutting these programs. EESI spearheaded a coalition letter with 37 public interest, agricultural and environmental organizations to House appropriators requesting full funding for Section 9006. (EESI would like to thank all the groups that supported the Coalition letter.) EESI successfully worked with a bipartisan group of 34 Representatives and 17 Senators on a “Dear Colleague” letter sent to appropriators.Consequently, both House and Senate fully restored funding for Section 9006 at $23 million. EESI issued press releases, sent updates to our extensive network, and posted information on our website to inform people of the value of bioenergy. A big thanks to those in our network who distributed our materials to others.
USDA has finally released the first of several rulings designating 83 categories of biobased products from which federal agencies will be expected to preferentially procure. Biobased products can help wean us off our use of oil, thereby improving energy security and providing another revenue source for our agriculture sector. While implementation of this important federal procurement program has been slow, EESI is in contact with USDA staff members who oversee development of these rules. To draw greater attention, EESI, with Senator Harkin’s (D-IA) office, the National Corn Growers Association, the United Soybean Board and others, organized a biobased product showcase on June 7. This “Congress only” event featured 20 biobased product vendors. The showcase was designed to raise awareness of the procurement program and highlight for Members of Congress and procurement officials the urgent need to implement it.
Renewable Fuel Standard
Several proposals for a Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) were introduced in Congress this spring with action being taken on RFS language in both the House and Senate. The enacted Energy Policy Act of 2005mandates 7.5 billion gallons of renewable fuel to be produced by 2012. Considering ethanol production in 2004 alone hovered around 3.4 billion gallons, the emerging biodiesel industry and advances in cellulosic ethanol will enable this amount to be achieved much sooner. EESI tracked the RFS proposals, sent press releases, newsletter articles and updates to our network and provided information to new Congressional offices about the importance of biofuels.
Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Grant Program
Carol Werner worked with the Ohio Governor’s Biomass Task Force, NREL, and the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) to raise awareness about the highly successful Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Grant Program. She spoke at several conferences around the country:
- National Association of State Energy Offices (NASEO) Annual Meeting (2/05)
- American Council on Renewable Energy (ACORE)/Power Gen Trade Show (3/05)
- Governor’s Ethanol Coalition Meeting in DC (3/05)
- USDA Rural Development/NASEO Webcast on Section 9006 (5/05)
- DC Area Council of Governments (6/22).
- New Mexico Council of Churches Workshop on ClimaticEnergy Subsidies (7/29)
Carol also serves on the Governors’ Ethanol Coalition Cellulosic Working Group, the NASEO Ag/Energy Task force, the National Center for Appropriate Technology board and the editorial board of BioCycle Magazine.
The BCO (Bioenergy/Climate Protection/Oil Reduction) Newsletter reaches more than 900 readers worldwide.Recent editions (7/29/05, 5/31/05; 3/17/05) have included detailed status reports on energy and agriculture legislation; progress of the Energy Title; federal, state and local biomass initiatives; and the latest academic research relating to bioenergy. Commentary contributions have come from the Coalition of Northeastern Governors; Dr. Susan Capalbo, Montana State University, who provided an article on carbon sequestration; and John Sheehan of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), who offered commentary on the energy balance of ethanol. Contact EESI at 202/662-1885 or bioenergy [at] eesi.org to receive BCO.
EESI continues to work with the New Uses Council and the North Carolina Solar Center on a 3-year USDA-funded research project to develop workable incentive systems for biobased products, biofuels and biopower.
Other Agriculture Press Releases:
· Senate Full Committee on Appropriations Completes FY06 Agriculture Approps. (6/23/05)
· Senator Harkin Hosts Biobased Products Showcase: The Economic, Environmental, Public Health and Energy Security Benefits of Biobased Products (6/7/05)
· House Appropriations Subcommittee on Agriculture Restores Full funding of $23 million for Sec. 9006 (5/17/05)
· 22 Bipartisan Representatives Introduce Renewable Fuel Standard (4/13/05)
· USDA Releases Section 9006 NOFA (3/28/05)
· Senate Renewable Fuel Standard Introduced (3/17/05)
· USDA Releases Final Rule for Section 9002 (1/24/05)
Energy and Climate
There have been a number of significant developments in climate science and policy thus far in 2005. On February 16, the Kyoto Protocol became legally binding on its 128 parties. On April 28, Dr. James Hansen, director of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, concluded that more energy is being absorbed from the sun than is emitted back to space, saying, "This energy imbalance is the 'smoking gun' that we have been looking for." The G-8 met during July in Scotland where Chairman Tony Blair (UK) expressed a need to push forward a strong climate change agenda. On June 22, the US Senate passed a “Sense of the Senate on Climate Change” amendment which states, “There is a growing scientific consensus that human activity is a substantial cause of greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere, and mandatory steps will be required to slow or stop the growth of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere.” This amendment also urges Congress to enact a program of “mandatory, market-based limits and incentives … in a manner that will not significantly harm the U.S. economy.” These collective developments provide EESI and its climate network both the opportunity and urgency to bring climate change issues into much sharper focus for the private and public sectors and strengthen the groundwork for effective climate policy.
Energy and Climate Caucuses
As part of its efforts, EESI is recruiting members to the House and Senate Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Caucuses as well as the House Climate Change Caucus. EESI has met with the majority of freshman offices and is working to maintain and strengthen ties with more Member offices and staff. EESI continues to engage with US Climate Action Network (USCAN) to conduct a long-term education campaign with respect to climate policy. One focus has been the Climate Stewardship Act of 2005, which was introduced on February 10 in the Senate by Senators John McCain (R-AZ) and Joe Lieberman (D-CT) with 14 others and in the House by Rep. Wayne Gilchrest (R-MD) and John Olver (D-MD) with 97 cosponsors in total.
Energy Bill of 2005
As the Energy bill moved through Congress, EESI worked with Member offices and coalition partners to push for a renewable portfolio standard (RPS), renewable fuels standard (RFS), renewable production tax credits (PTC), solar investment tax credits, renewable resource assessment and language encouraging interconnection and net metering, as well as a host of energy efficiency policy and tax provisions in the bill. The Conference Committee finalized the Energy bill in late July, just in time to pass it through Congress before the August break. The final bill has both good provisions and many drawbacks. An RPS was not included, and the PTC and others are limited to only 2 years – which will require an extension next year! EESI is producing a summary of the efficiency and renewables provisions in the final bill, which will be posted on our website.
Sen. Domenici (R-NM), chair of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, held special day-long conferences on oil and gas, coal, and nuclear. Yet, when asked by EESI and our Sustainable Energy Coalition (SEC) colleagues to hold a similar conference on renewable energy, he declined. Instead, EESI collaborated with SEC to hold an informal meeting with several Senate staffers. Carol is on the Steering Committee of the SEC.
EESI issued a summary of the Administration's FY06 Budget Request for DOE and EPA Programs related to renewable energy, energy efficiency, and climate change funding. (2/7/05) In addition, EESI organized two briefings in April on the budget’s approach to these energy technologies. EESI worked with its coalition partners to call for significantly increased funding for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) programs above that proposed by the Administration. EESI partnered with the Northeast Midwest Senate Coalition and NASEO to organize various letters of support. However, reorganization of the Appropriations Committee combined jurisdiction over renewable energy and energy efficiency appropriations under the Subcommittee on Energy & Water, which has the potential to create conflict between renewable energy and energy efficiency funding. In an effort to be proactive, EESI and others sent a SEC letter to the President making recommendations for energy efficiency and renewable energy programs in the Administration’s FY07 budget. EESI is collaborating with the House and Senate Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Caucuses as part of a strategy group working on FY07 appropriations.
Energy and Climate Briefings and Events
EESI held more than 20 highly successful Congressional briefings and other forums/events so far this year. "Dear Colleague" letters were disseminated by House and/or Senate member offices for many of our briefings, urging Members and Hill staff to attend. Our audiences have ranged from 80-120 attendees per event. EESI has posted briefing presentations on our website. In addition, we have produced DVDs of select climate change briefings. The DVDs can be ordered through EESI’s website for $20 apiece, including shipping and handling. Please see the Briefings List.
EESI served on the planning committee for the Eighth Annual SEC/Congressional Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technology Expo, an all-day event held June 21st in the Cannon Caucus Room as an ice cream social.We implemented a broad range of outreach plans to coincide with the event, including a series of “Dear Colleagues” and floor statements regarding the various technologies and their connections to national issues including jobs, competitiveness and energy security, and greenhouse gas reductions. EESI organized two policy forums in conjunction with the 2005 Expo, one titled “What is the Role of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in National Security?” and another titled “Is the Energy Bill Fair to Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy?” The Expo included a news briefing that featured several high-ranking federal officials including Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman. A session of films and speakers on renewable energy and energy efficiency topics completed the afternoon.
Presentation on the True Costs of Carbon
Carol spoke at a New Mexico Council of Churches climate change symposium on July 29 called “Subsidies: Historic, Current and the Skewing of Market Signals.” This engagement will feed into a New Mexico state effort to develop and implement a climate change plan. Her presentation is available on EESI’s website.
Climate Change News has a growing distribution list, now 700, including Congressional offices. This weekly news update, which reports on domestic and international news about climate change whether pertaining to scientific literature, governmental or private sector actions, or conferences, receives excellent reviews from our Capitol Hill audience. please contact EESI at 202/662-1892 or climate [at] eesi.org to be added to the Climate Change News distribution list.
Other recent EESI energy and climate publications:
· Fact Sheet: The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change (6/10/05)
· Briefing Summary: Climate Change Post-2100: What are the Implications of Continued Greenhouse Gas Buildup? (6/10/05)
· Renewable Energy Policy and Markets – a presentation to the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments (6/22/05)
· Press Release: Arctic Climate Briefing Reveals Rate of Warming More Rapid than Scientists Had Thought(3/16/05)
After nine extensions of the previous surface transportation bill, TEA-21, that provides federal funding for highway and transit projects, Congress finally passed the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETA-LU) on July 29, 2005, authorizing spending of $286.5 billion over 5 years. This includes $8.5 billion for the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Program (up from $8.1 billion for 6 years in TEA-21), $51 billion for transit, $237.6 million (over 5 years) for the new Clean Fuels Formula Grant Program, to promote the use of alternative fuels and advanced technologies in buses, and a new Clean School Bus Program. At last, public health has been included as a priority consideration for CMAQ projects, a provision EESI had been advocating. CMAQ is the primary source of cleaner transit project funding.
Preventing Cuts to CMAQ
In January 2005, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) directed states to return a total of $1.2 billion in previously allocated highway program dollars, a process known as a “rescission.” EESI issued an action alert to notify our network of the rescission order and inform stakeholders how to engage with decision makers to prevent undue cuts to CMAQ. Historically, CMAQ funds have been utilized disproportionately to comply with Federal Highway Administration rescissions. EESI encouraged people to urge their states to avoid rescission of CMAQ funds or, at minimum, to ensure that the rescission taps CMAQ funds proportionately to other funds. One of our contacts said, “Thank you for the information. I am going to pass this along to the appropriate people within my organization and ask that they get involved. Keep the information flowing...” EESI will continue to monitor these annual rescissions in the future and keep members informed.
In response to EESI’s action alert on rescission, Carol Werner was invited to speak at a Clean Cities Funding Workshop held in Washington, DC on March 8, 2005. Afterward, several Clean Cities coordinators requested that EESI provide them with more information and potential strategies to address the issue. There are more than 80 Clean Cities coalitions, all of which are part of our network. According to Salt Lake City’s coordinator BeverlyMiller, “the information EESI had provided us is nearly revolutionary!”
New Flyer Industries, a clean bus manufacturer, also asked EESI to provide them with assistance on the rescission directive. EESI prepared a rescission tool kit for New Flyer’s clean bus manufacturers and their customers, including fleet managers and transit officials. The toolkit included a state-by-state analysis of CMAQ fund obligations and information on how to engage with decision makers. New Flyer Industries used this information to educate its sales representatives as well as provide information at the American Public Transportation Association 2005 Bus and Paratransit Conference in May.
EESI sent a letter to the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority’s (WMATA) Board Vice Chairman Gladys Mack in response to WMATA’s decision to purchase diesel and diesel hybrid buses. EESI encouraged the Board to explore the option of using biodiesel blends in existing buses and seek other funding options like CMAQ to help replace existing diesel buses with cleaner, more efficient hybrid buses. EESI staff offered to provide WMATA with information on available funding sources for clean bus purchases. EESI is identifying opportunities to increase WMATA’s awareness of idling and means of adopting anti-idling measures for its fleet.
In response to an invitation by the Department of Energy (DOE), EESI provided feedback and comments on a National Idle Reduction Plan being jointly developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), DOE and the Department of Transportation (DOT). The National Idle Reduction Plan will focus on available technologies, finance incentives, regulatory approaches and outreach mechanisms to reduce idling nationwide. The plan is expected to be released in November 2005. In conjunction with the release of the plan, DOE also expressed interest in working with EESI to increase policymaker awareness and education on idle reduction.
EESI hosted a congressional briefing on June 10 about children’s environmental health which featured some of the latest scientific findings on the connection between pollution and health problems in children. The briefing was cosponsored by Senators James M. Jeffords (I-VT), Hillary Clinton (D-NY), Barack Obama (D-IL) and Frank R. Lautenberg (D-NJ). It is one of a series of briefings focusing on the latest science regarding the health effects of air pollution. The second briefing of this series, held July 18, was titled “Public Health, Clean Air and Energy:Moving Transportation Towards Cleaner, More Efficient Solutions.”
Clean Bus Tool Kit
To provide EESI’s National Clean Bus Network and local bus fleets with information to help them purchase clean buses, EESI is researching federal and state clean bus funding sources as part of a “funding fact sheet.” The fact sheet will be distributed through EESI’s website and our clean bus newsletter. Our Clean Bus Project is seeking additional funds to complete and distribute a “Clean Bus Toolkit.” Included in the kit will be the funding fact sheet and information on various emissions reduction strategies such as diesel retrofits, alternative fuel use, and idling reduction. Contact information for technical assistance on all of the aforementioned emissions reduction strategies, as well as local contacts who can assist individual fleets in their clean bus planning, will be included.
Due to the positive response to EESI’s white paper Energy and Smart Growth: It’s about How and Where We Build, EESI was invited to make a presentation to the Senate Smart Growth Task Force on July 26. This paper continues to be a widely used resource on a topic of growing importance.
The Clean Bus Update, EESI’s monthly periodical on clean bus technologies, has updated its design and broadened its scope and has a circulation of more than 900. It now includes information on idling reduction – an important emission reduction and energy efficiency technology for heavy-duty vehicles, anti-idling regulations, and the health impacts of transportation-related air pollution while continuing to cover news on clean bus projects, new technologies, important transportation legislation, and alternative fuels. The periodical continues to be well received and widely re-circulated by various agencies, including the Department of Energy and Clean Cities coalitions. It is a valuable resource to transit officials, technology providers, federal, state, local officials and others. To receive Clean Bus Update, contact EESI at 202/662-1883 or transportation [at] eesi.org.
Other recent EESI transportation publications:
· Fact sheet: The Crisis in Children’s Environmental Health: Policy Implications (6/05)
· The Convergence of Electricity and Transportation - Report by EESI Board Member Roger Duncan (3/1/05)
· Press Release: $2.1 Billion Cut in FY 2006 Transportation Budget (2/7/05)
Recent EESI Congressional Briefings & Educational Forums
- · Moving from Monitoring to Prediction: The Quality of the Nation’s Streams – 3/4/05. Moderator: Eileen O’Neill, Water Environment Federation. Richard Alexander, U.S. Geological Service (USGS); Dr. Richard Smith, USGS; Keith Robinson, New Hampshire USGS; Laura Blake, New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission.
- · Moving from Monitoring to Prediction: The Quality of the Nation’s Ground Water – 3/11/05. Moderator:Lynn Orphan, Water Environment Federation. Tom Nolan, USGS; Scott Ator, Maryland USGS; Keith Robinson, New Hampshire USGS.
- · What Does Climate Change Mean for the Arctic? How is Alaska Being Affected? – 3/15/05. Dr. Robert Corell, Chair, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) and American Meteorological Society; Dr. Pål Prestrud, Vice-Chair, ACIA, Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Norway; Dr. Heidi Cullen, The Weather Channel, formerly with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR).
- · Energy Efficiency: FY2006 Budget and Policy Review – 4/14/05. Bill Prindle, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy; Jeff Genzer, National Association of State Energy Officials, Duncan Weinberg, Genzer & Pembroke; Deborah Estes, Minority Counsel, Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee.
- · Renewable Energy: How Does It Fit Into the FY2006 Budget and Energy Bill? – 4/15405. Fred Sissine, Congressional Research Service; Valerie West, Office of Sen. Gordon Smith (R-OR); Karl Gawell, Geothermal Energy Association; Rhone Resch, Solar Energy Industries Association; Bob Dinneen, Renewable Fuels Association.
- · Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading: How the U.S. Could Tap the Carbon Market – 4/25/05. Robert Donkers, Environment Counselor, European Commission; Dr. Michael J. Walsh, Chicago Climate Exchange; Josh Bushinsky, Pew Center on Global Climate Change.
- · Reliable Energy Data: The Role of the Energy Information Administration in Changing Energy Markets – 5/12/05. Dr. David Wyss, Standard and Poor’s; Daniel Aschenbach, Moody’s Investors Service; Matthew R. Simmons, Simmons and Company International; Robert McNally, Tudor Investments, former Sr. Dir. for International Energy on the White House National Economic Council and National Security Council.
- · Agriculture and Climate Change: Threats and Opportunities – 5/24/05. Dr. Stephen Long, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Dr. George Frisvold, University of Arizona; Michael Bowman, 25x ’25 and Colorado Renewable Energy Forum.
- · The Economic, Environmental, Public Health and Energy Security Benefits of Biobased Products – ABiobased Showcase and Panel – 6/7/05. A “Members Only” event cosponsored by Senator Harkin’s officeand the American Farm Bureau Federation, American Soybean Association, National Com Growers Association, the National Farmers Union, and EESI. Remarks by Senator Tom Harkin; introduction by Dr. Stanley Johnson, Iowa State University; Panel Discussion on the Future of Bio-based Products: Moderator: Dr. Stanley Johnson, Iowa State University; Dr. Phyllis Johnson, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, USDA; Dave Nelson, farmer, Iowa Corn Growers Association.
- · Meeting the Climate Challenge in the Arctic Region: A Symposium with the Norwegian Embassy – 6/9/05. Knut Vollebaek, Norwegian Ambassador to the US; Sen. John McCain (R-AZ); Jan Petersen, Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs; Dr. Gordon McBean, Lead Author, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA), U. of Western Ontario; Dr. Olav Orheim, Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsoe, Norway; Dr. Helge Drange, G.C. Rieber Climate Institute and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Norway; James E. Hansen, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies; Rep. Wayne Gilchrest (R-MD); George Atkinson, Science and Technology Adviser to the U.S. Secretary of State; Dr. Pål Prestrud, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Norway; Jan Petersen, Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs.
- · The Crisis in Children’s Environmental Health – 6/10/05. Dr. W. James Gauderman, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California; Dr. Janice J. Kim, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency; Dr. Lynn R. Goldman, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health.
- · 8th Annual Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Expo, Forum and Ice Cream Social – 6/21/05.Forums: “What is the Role of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in National Security?” Carol Werner, Environmental and Energy Study Institute; Scott Sklar, The Stella Group, Ltd.; Bob Dinneen, Renewable Fuels Association; Milt Copulos, National Defense Council Foundation. “Is the Energy Bill Fair to Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy?” Anna Aurilio, US Public Interest Research Group; Karl Gawell, Geothermal Energy Association;Kara Rinaldi, Alliance to Save Energy; Rhone Resch, Solar Energy Industries Association. Films and speakers reviewed various renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies and their practical applications.
- · Home, Farm & Community Wind Energy Systems: Reaching the Next Level – 6/22/05. Michael Bergey, Bergey Windpower; Sean Middleton, Illinois Rural Electric Cooperative; Andy Kruse, Southwest Windpower; Henry DuPont, Lorax Energy Systems.
- · The Investor Community and Climate Change – 6/27/05. Remarks by Rep. Christopher Shays, Co-chair GLOBE USA; Moderators: Will Ferretti, GLOBE USA and Carol Werner, EESI; David Gardiner, Ceres; Meredith Miller, Office of Connecticut State Treasurer; John Stowell, Cinergy Corp.
- · G8: Addressing Energy Security and Climate Change – 6/30/05. Remarks by Rep. Wayne Gilchrest (R-MD), Co-chair, House Climate Change Caucus; Speaker: Christian Turner, First Secretary for Energy and Environment, British Embassy.
- · Biofuels and the Energy Bill: Opportunities for Reducing US Oil Dependence – 7/14/05. Rep. Gil Gutknecht (R-MN); Aaron Whitesel, Legislative Assistant, Office of Senator Richard Lugar (R-IN); Dr. Gal Luft, Institute for the Analysis of Global Security and Set America Free Coalition; John Sheehan, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- · Public Health, Clean Air and Energy: Moving Transportation Towards Cleaner, More Efficient Solutions – 7/18/05. Rep. Christopher Shays (R-CT);George D. Thurston, Sc. D., New York University School (NYU) of Medicine and NYU's EPA Particulate Matter Research Center; Joseph Romm, Center for Energy & Climate Solutions.